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Data Session 9: Notes
Session 9 Part A Part B Part C Part D Homework
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A B C 


Notes for Session 9, Part C

Note 5

The presentation used here is based on 100 estimates of the size of the penguin population, which were produced from independently selected random samples of size 10. These are "typical" of what you would expect to get if another 100 samples of size 10 were selected: You would obtain a similar (but not exactly the same) pattern exhibited in the stem and leaf plot of estimates.

Though statistics textbooks might be more likely to use a "continuous" model to illustrate the idea of sampling distributions, this is a somewhat more concrete and accessible way to demonstrate the same concepts.

<< back to Part C: Investigating Variation in Estimates


Note 6

The use of intervals demonstrated in this session is a very important statistical idea. It is the conceptual basis for the Confidence Interval Estimation. More advanced texts will use continuous models, such as the normal distribution, as approximate descriptions of sampling distributions, and then develop interval ideas based on these models. The intent here is to provide an understanding of the concepts in a less formal and perhaps more readily understandable setting.

<< back to Part C: Investigating Variation in Estimates


Note 7

The normal distribution curve is symmetric and bell-shaped. It is characterized by the mean and the standard deviation (see below). The mean is located at the center of the distribution curve, and the standard deviation determines the width of that curve. Approximately 68% of the data values fall within one standard deviation of the mean, and 95% of the data values fall within two standard deviations of the mean.

<< back to Part C: Investigating Variation in Estimates


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