Authentic assessment: Evaluation activities that require students to use knowledge in different contexts (e.g., real-world scenarios).
Authentic instruction: Teaching that emphasizes applying content and processes in different contexts.
Authentic intellectual work: Understanding concepts through underlying academic disciplines; discipline-based learning.
Civic education: Instruction focused on teaching the principles and practices of citizenship in a democratic republic.
Cooperative learning: Students working in pairs or small groups to facilitate learning.
Culminating assessment: End-of-unit evaluation that provides a broad view of achievement.
Deep understanding: In-depth, comprehensive learning that goes beyond surface learning.
Democratic classroom: A classroom that models democratic values and processes, respects individuals, and gives students a voice in decisions.
Differentiated instruction: Providing several different avenues by which all students can learn the same material.
Discipline-based content: Content drawn from different discipline areas, such as history, geography, economics, and political science.
Diversity: Differences as noted in gender, achievement, race, religion, language, and learning strengths.
Effective citizenship: Informed, active participation supporting the common good.
Formal assessment: Planned evaluation of learning often involving the use of rubrics.
Fragile knowledge: Surface or shallow understanding.
Generative topic: A concept that engages students and is used to connect or introduce a unit.
Informal assessment: Spontaneous evaluation, such as discussion questions that gauge student understanding.
Jigsaw: A type of cooperative learning in which students become experts on one part of the material and teach it to other students.
Multicultural education: Learning focused on understanding various cultures and their beliefs, values, language, and traditions.
Multiple intelligences: Refers to the ability to learn, create, and solve problems within one or more cultural settings; Dr. Howard Gardner's theory that there is more than one way to be smart.
NCSS themes: Ten major standards-based social studies concepts used in planning units.
Ongoing assessment: Evaluation that occurs within lessons as the unit is being taught.
Online resources: Sources available on the Internet.
Performance assessment: Evaluation based on how students show what they have learned.
Performances of understanding: Activities students complete to illustrate that they can apply what they are learning.
Portfolio assessment: Samples of student work accumulated in a folder to show progress over time.
Powerful teaching and learning: Qualities of instruction that lead to increased learning: active, meaningful, challenging, value-based, and integrative.
Primary sources: Original documents or first-hand accounts of an event.
Real-world instruction: Teaching or reinforcing concepts through application.
Rubric: Criteria for developing and/or evaluating student work.
Secondary sources: Sources written by someone other than first-hand participants or witnesses of an event.
Social studies: Studies involving content, processes, and democratic values that help develop active, informed citizens.
Teaching for Understanding: A planning framework for developing units.
Throughlines: Year-long learning goals that connect units throughout the year.
Understanding goals: Unit learning objectives.
Unity: National wholeness based on shared beliefs and values to support the common good.