Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
Major Works: Problems of Neurosis (1929), The Practice and Theory of Individual Psychology (1927)
Adler modified and expanded many of Freud's theories. He proposed that people were motivated primarily by feelings of inferiority rather than sexual instinct.
Gordon Allport (1897-1967)
Major Works: The Nature of Prejudice (1954), Pattern and Growth in Personality (1965), The Person in Psychology (1968)
Allport, a social psychologist, studied the complexity and persistence of prejudice.
Albert Bandura (1925-
Major Works: Adolescent Aggression
(1959), Social Foundations of Thought and Action (1986)
A social psychologist, Bandura's research includes studies in observational learning.
Edwin Boring (1886-1968)
Major Works: History of Experimental Psychology (1929), Psychologist at Large (1961)
An early historian of psychology, Boring conducted key research on sensation.
Gordon Bower (1932-
Major Work: "Mood and Memory," in American Psychologist (1981)
A cognitive psychologist, Bower's research explores the role of emotion in information processing.
Noam Chomsky (1928-
Major Works: Syntactic Structures (1957), Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1965)
A linguist, Chomsky's work focuses on the biological basis of language.
Albert Ellis (1913-
Major Works: How to Live with a Neurotic: At Home and at Work (1957), A Guide to Rational Living (1961), Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy (1962)
Ellis, a cognitive psychologist, developed Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT), a system for transforming the irrational beliefs that cause undesirable, highly charged emotional reactions.
Erik Erikson (1902-1994)
Major Works: Childhood and Society (1950), Insight and Responsibility (1964) Identity, Youth, and Crisis (1968)
Erikson, a student of Sigmund and Anna Freud, developed a psychosocial stage theory of development.
Leon Festinger (1919-1990)
Major Work: Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (1957)
Festinger formulated the concept of cognitive dissonance, proposing that people are motivated by the tension-producing effects of incongruous cognitions.
Anna Freud (1895-1982)
Major Work: The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936)
Freud modified and expanded the work of her father, Sigmund, focusing on child development and ego psychology.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Major Works: The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1904), Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905), Civilization and Its Discontents (1930)
Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, developed numerous psychoanalytic theories, concepts, and therapeutic approaches.
G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924)
Major Works: The Study of Children (1883), Founders of Modern Psychology (1912)
Hall helped found the American Psychological Association, serving as its first president. He was also among the first psychologists to offer graduate instruction in the field.
Karen Horney (1885-1952)
Major Works: Self-Analysis (1942), Neurosis and Human Growth (1950)
Horney modified and expanded Freud's views, challenging his theories on female sexual and moral development.
William James (1842-1910)
Major Work: The Principles of Psychology (1890)
James's The Principles of Psychology is regarded by many as one of the most important psychology texts ever written. His work helped establish psychology as an academic discipline.
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
Major Works: Psychology of the Unconscious (1912), Memories, Dreams, Reflections (1961), Man and His Symbols (1961)
Jung expanded and modified Freud's views of the unconscious, proposing the concepts of the personal unconscious, collective unconscious, and archetypes.
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987)
Major Work: The Philosophy of Moral Development (1941)
Kohlberg expanded Piaget's theories on children's cognitive development to include moral development.
Kurt Lewin (1890-1947)
Major Works: A Dynamic Theory of Personality (1935), Frontiers in Group Dynamics (1946)
The founder of social psychology, Lewin pioneered field theory, an interdisciplinary method of observing and interpreting social phenomena.
Eleanor Maccoby (1917-
Major Works: Patterns of Child Rearing (1957 with Robert Sears), Psychology of Sex Differences (1974), and Adolescents after Divorce (1996)
Maccoby's work explores the development of children's social behavior as it relates to gender, family functioning, and parental child-rearing methods.
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
Major Works: Motivation and Personality (1954), Toward a Psychology of Being (1968)
Maslow, a humanistic psychologist, proposed a model outlining humans' hierarchy of needs model.
David McClelland (1917-1998)
Major Works: The Inner Experience (1967), Human Motivation (1987)
McClelland's work included research into motivation and entrepreneurship.
Stanley Milgram (1933-1984)
Major Work: Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View (1983)
Milgram's most famous work was a series of experiments on obedience to authority, conducted at Yale University.
Gardner Murphy (1895-1979)
Major Work: Historical Introduction to Modern Psychology (1949)
Murphy, a historian of psychology and key figure in biosocial research, was president of the American Society for Psychical Research from 1965 to 1971.
Henry Murray (1893-1988)
Major Work: Explorations in Personality: A Clinical and Experimental Study of Fifty Men of College Age (1938)
Murray devised the Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT), a projective personality test in which the subject is given a picture and asked to tell a story about it.
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
Major Works: Lectures on the Work of the Principal Digestive Glands (1897), Lectures on Conditioned Reflexes (1928)
Pavlov, a founder of behaviorism, pioneered the study of classical conditioning.
Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
Major Works: Psychotherapy and Personality Change
(1954), Client-Centered Therapy (1951), On Becoming a Person
(1961), A Way of Being (1980)
Rogers, a humanistic psychologist, developed client-centered (now Rogerian) therapy, greatly impacting the ways in which therapists work with their clients.
Martin E. P. Seligman (1942-
Major Works: Helplessness (1975), What You Can Change & What You Can't (1993)
Seligman's research explores psychopathology, helplessness, and optimism.
Muzafer Sherif (1906-1988)
Major Works: The Psychology of Social Norms (1936), Social Interaction, Process and Products (1967), Social Psychology (1969)
Sherif, an early pioneer in social psychology, studied group processes and conflict.
Burrhus Frederic (B.F.) Skinner (1904-1990)
Major Works: Walden Two (1948), Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971), About Behaviorism (1974)
Skinner, a radical behaviorist, expanded the work of Watson, Thorndike, and Pavlov to include the concept of operant conditioning.
Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)
Major Works: Educational Psychology (1903), Mental and Social Measurements (1904)
Through his studies on human and animal learning, Thorndike formulated the Law of Effect, the founding principle of instrumental learning.
John B. Watson (1878-1958)
Major Works: "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It," in Psychological Review
(1913), Psychological Care of Infant and Child (1928)
Watson founded behaviorism, challenging traditional psychoanalytic views and arguing for a psychological model that focuses on observable behavior.
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
Major Work: Lectures on Human and Animal Psychology (1896)
Wundt founded the first psychological laboratory, helping to establish the field as an experimental science.