Click the audio icon to hear pronunciations. View full Audio Glossary.
campesinos Subsistence farmers in Central or South America.
Chileans People who live in Chile, a South American country on the Pacific coast.
glasnost Political reforms begun by Mikhail Gorbachev, the last leader of the Soviet Union.
Mapuche Indigenous people of the southern regions of South America.
Mikhail Gorbachev The last leader of the USSR whose liberalization programs led to the collapse of communist rule in the USSR and Eastern Europe, born 1931.
Minamata Japanese city whose citizens were affected by mercury poisoning in the 1950s, leading the Japanese government in the 1960s to close down a chemical plant that had been dumping mercury in the sea.
perestroika Economic reforms begun by Mikhail Gorbachev, the last leader of the USSR.
Tienanmen Chinese public square created in front of the old palace of the Qing dynasty; location of 1989 protests by workers and students for more political participation that were stopped by Chinese military action.
Yangzi River Major river in China that flows throught the middle of the country to the Pacific Ocean.
zeitgeist German phrase meaning "the spirit of the times".