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Glossary for the letter "S":

Click the audio icon to hear pronunciations. View full glossary.

xSafavid Empire  Audio Pronunciation of Safavid Empire
Iranian kingdom established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran (Persia) a Shi'ite state, 1502 - 1722.

sahel Audio Pronunciation of sahel
Arabic word meaning "shore" and referring to the dry area between the Sahara and the forests or grasslands south of it.

Saint Domingue Audio Pronunciation of Saint Domingue
French Caribbean colony that produced sugar and considerable revenue for France; it later became the independent nation of Haiti.

Samarqand  Audio Pronunciation of Samarqand
Trade city along the Silk Road in Central Asia.

Sapa Inka Audio Pronunciation of Sapa Inka
The sole ruler of the Inka, believed to be a descendant of the sun god and his representative on earth; his cult became the center of the Inkan state religion.

sari Audio Pronunciation of sari
Indian clothing for women consisting of one long piece of cloth wrapped around the body and over the shoulder.

sarong Audio Pronunciation of sarong
Clothing for men and women in Southeast Asia consisting of one piece of cloth wrapped around the waist.

Sassanian Audio Pronunciation of Sassanian
Last Persian empire before the expansion of Arab peoples, 224 - 642 CE.

Sassanid Audio Pronunciation of Sassanid
Persian government, 224 - 651 CE.

satyagraha Audio Pronunciation of satyagraha
Political philosophy of Gandhi that stressed nonviolent resistance.

Satyajit Ray Audio Pronunciation of Satyajit Ray
Indian film director.

sedentism Audio Pronunciation of sedentism
System of settled human groups living in a permanent settlement.

Sejong Audio Pronunciation of Sejong
Fifteenth-century Korean ruler who ordered the creation of a written script for the Korean language.

shaman Audio Pronunciation of shaman
Priest who channels spirits for his or her religious community.

Shang Audio Pronunciation of Shang
First Chinese dynasty, eighteenth to eleventh centuries BCE .

shari'a Audio Pronunciation of shari'a
Muslim law.

shaykh Audio Pronunciation of shaykh
Title for an Arab tribal leader.

Shi'ite Audio Pronunciation of Shi'ite
Muslims who believe that their leader should be a direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.

Shi'ite Safavids Audio Pronunciation of Shi'ite Safavids
The Safavids made Shi'ia the state religion of Persia.

Shinto Audio Pronunciation of Shinto
Literally "Way of the Gods"; indigenous religion of Japan.

shoen Audio Pronunciation of shoen
Manors or estates of nobility during and after Japanese Heian period.

shogun Audio Pronunciation of shogun
Japanese military ruler of Japan, circa 1200 - 1868.

shogunate Audio Pronunciation of shogunate
Government of the shogun.

Siddhartha  Audio Pronunciation of Siddhartha
The given name of the Buddha.

Silla Audio Pronunciation of Silla
State that unified the Korean peninsula for the first time in 668 CE and ruled as the Silla dynasty until the tenth century.

Sima Qian Audio Pronunciation of Sima Qian
Chinese historian of the Han dynasty.

Simon Bolivar Audio Pronunciation of Simon Bolivar
Leader of independence movement in South America, 1783 - 1830.

ska Audio Pronunciation of ska
Jamaican music style that influenced reggae.

small metropole Audio Pronunciation of small metropole
City with less than one million residents.

Song Audio Pronunciation of Song
Chinese dynasty, 960 - 1279 CE.

Songhay Audio Pronunciation of Songhay
Last of the three great empires in the western Sudan from the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries.

Sotho Audio Pronunciation of Sotho
Bantu-speaking peoples of southern Africa who fought against European settlement and colonization.

Srivijaya Audio Pronunciation of Srivijaya
Empire in Southeast Asia that controlled trade from the fifth to fifteenth century CE.

Sufis Audio Pronunciation of Sufis
Muslim mystics.

Sufism Audio Pronunciation of Sufism
Mystical approach to Islam.

Sumer Audio Pronunciation of Sumer
Ancient city-state in Mesopotamia which saw the invention of cuneiform writing about 3500 BCE.

Sumerian  Audio Pronunciation of Sumerian
From Sumer, the earliest Mesopotamian society.

Sunjata Audio Pronunciation of Sunjata
Founder of the Malian empire in the thirteenth century; protagonist of epic tales performed by griots.

Sunni Audio Pronunciation of Sunni
The Muslim majority who believe that the community should select its own leadership instead of only looking to direct descendants of the Prophet Muhammad.

swadeshi Audio Pronunciation of swadeshi
Term derived from "swadesh," used to name the boycott of foreign-made goods led by Mohandas Gandhi in British-controlled India.

swadesh Audio Pronunciation of swadesh
Literally "of our own country".

Swahili  Audio Pronunciation of Swahili
East African people who speak Swahili, the Bantu language that draws upon borrowed Arabic words as well as words from other languages spoken by mariners in the Indian Ocean.

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