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Glossary for the letter "M":

Click the audio icon to hear pronunciations. View full glossary.

xMacchu Picchu Audio Pronunciation of Macchu Picchu
Sacred city of the Inka.

Malacca Audio Pronunciation of Malacca
City-state in southeast Asia at the center of sea trade routes around 1500.

Mali Audio Pronunciation of Mali
Second great empire in western Sudan, 1240 - 1500 CE.

Manchus Audio Pronunciation of Manchus
People from Manchuria, northeast of China, who conquered China in the seventeenth century and ruled as the Qing dynasty from 1644 - 1911.

mandala Audio Pronunciation of mandala
From early Indian cosmology, a sacred diagram of the cosmos composed of concentric circles or rectangles.

Mande Audio Pronunciation of Mande
Niger-Congo language group in West Africa associated with formation of the Mali Empire.

Manichaeism Audio Pronunciation of Manichaeism
Religion based on the teachings of the Persian Mani, who envisioned the duality of good and evil, circa 216 - 276 CE.

Mansa Musa Audio Pronunciation of Mansa Musa
Fourteenth-century Malian king who travelled to Mecca for a hajj.

Mao Zedong Audio Pronunciation of Mao Zedong
Communist Chinese leader who helped establish the People's Republic of China in 1949; ruled China from 1949 - 1960 and from 1966 - 1976, lived 1893 - 1976.

Maori Audio Pronunciation of Maori
Indigenous people in New Zealand.

Mapuche Audio Pronunciation of Mapuche
Indigenous people of the southern regions of South America.

Marcus Garvey Audio Pronunciation of Marcus Garvey
Jamaican who founded the United Negro Improvement Association in 1916 to help blacks in the Americas move back to Africa, 1887 - 1940.

Marquês de Pombal Audio Pronunciation of Marquês de Pombal
Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, eighteenth-century Portuguese chief minister who organized the expulsion of the Jesuits from the Americas.

Massasoit Audio Pronunciation of Massasoit
The title of Ousamequin, leader of the Pokanoket and the Wampanoag tribes, who negotiated a treaty with the Pilgrims for their alliance against the Narragansett in 1622.

Mauryan  Audio Pronunciation of Mauryan
South Asian dynasty, 322 - 183 BCE.

Mehrgarh Audio Pronunciation of Mehrgarh
Archaeological site of early agricultural settlement in South Asia, on the Kachi Plain of modern Pakistan.

Meiji Restoration Audio Pronunciation of Meiji Restoration
Political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.

Mencius Audio Pronunciation of Mencius
Chinese philosopher who taught that human's innate morality is corrupted by society, circa 372 - 289 BCE.

mercantilism Audio Pronunciation of mercantilism
European economic policies of the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries that restricted colonial trade to keep control of indigenous monetary systems.

merikani Audio Pronunciation of merikani
Printed cotton cloth used to make kanga garments for women in Zanzibar, probably introduced by American traders and made from handkerchiefs sewn together.

Meroitic Audio Pronunciation of Meroitic
Relating to the Meroe kingdom under Nubian control.

Mesopotamia  Audio Pronunciation of Mesopotamia
Area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; Sumer and Akkad were the two earliest societies established in that area.

mestizo Audio Pronunciation of mestizo
Term used by Spanish colonial administrators to describe someone of mixed Native American and European heritage.

metageography Audio Pronunciation of metageography
Set of spatial structures through which people order their knowledge of the world.

Mfecane Audio Pronunciation of Mfecane
Literally "the crushing" in Zulu; the events in southern Africa following Shaka Zulu's rise to power, which was in part possible because of destabilization caused by European encroachment.

Mikhail Gorbachev Audio Pronunciation of Mikhail Gorbachev
The last leader of the USSR whose liberalization programs led to the collapse of communist rule in the USSR and Eastern Europe, born 1931.

Minamata Audio Pronunciation of Minamata
Japanese city whose citizens were affected by mercury poisoning in the 1950s, leading the Japanese government in the 1960s to close down a chemical plant that had been dumping mercury in the sea.

Minas Gerais Audio Pronunciation of Minas Gerais
Brazilian state that experienced a series of mining booms beginning with gold in the late seventeenth century and continuing with iron ore in the nineteenth century.

mit'a Audio Pronunciation of mit'a
The Inka's communal labor requirements based on shared obligations to kinship groups and royal projects.

mnemonic Audio Pronunciation of mnemonic
Strategy or tool to aid memory.

Mogadishu  Audio Pronunciation of Mogadishu
Port city along the east coast of Africa.

Mohandas Gandhi Audio Pronunciation of Mohandas Gandhi
Leader of Indian independence movement and advocate of nonviolent civil disobedience in the face of unjust laws, 1869 - 1948.

Mohenjo-Daro Audio Pronunciation of Mohenjo-Daro
Best-documented ancient city in Indus valley, 2300 - 1500 BCE.

Mombasa  Audio Pronunciation of Mombasa
Port city along the east coast of Africa.

Monophysite Audio Pronunciation of Monophysite
Christians of the fifth to seventh centuries who taught that Jesus was solely divine and did not have two natures, the human and the divine.

Moses Maimonides Audio Pronunciation of Moses Maimonides
Jewish philosopher and physician born in Cordoba and exiled to Cairo where he advised Saladin, 1135 - 1204.

Mozambique  Audio Pronunciation of Mozambique
Modern country in southern Africa.

Mughal Empire  Audio Pronunciation of Mughal Empire
Muslim state that controlled most of the Indian subcontinent from 1526 - 1857 CE.

Muhammad Audio Pronunciation of Muhammad
In Islam, the prophet who received the last revelation from God.

Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab Audio Pronunciation of Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab
Eighteenth-century Muslim religious leader who preached a fundamentalist approach to his followers in the Arabian peninsula.

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