Applying Problem Solving
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 In the previous sections, you studied some rich mathematical problems, reflected on students' solution processes and strategies, and explored your own approach to solving a problem. Now you'll have an opportunity to apply what you know. Ms. Kincaid is a fourth-grade teacher from Bakersfield, California. She has introduced her students, who are working in small groups, to a unit on fractions by posing a division problem about sharing 12 cookies among eight children. She wants to assess what the students already know about naming and writing parts of wholes as well as to begin a unit on developing "fraction sense." How does problem solving fit into this picture? Before we explore that question, let's consider a similar problem: First, think about how you would solve the problem mentally or by using pencil and paper. Next, look at how three groups of students used different methods to derive their solutions.
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