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Visuals: Unit 11

Animations

Amount of Matter in a Flat Universe
The amount of matter is determined by measuring the overall height and pattern of the temperature fluctuations.
Composition of the Universe
Atomic matter, the matter we are familiar with, makes up less than 5% of the total density of the universe.
Geometry of the Universe
According to general relativity, the curvature of space determines how light travels.
Hubble's Law
By charting velocities of galaxies with his own observations of their distances from the Milky Way, he found the galaxies were receding from us.
Microwave Wavelength
The cosmic microwave background is leftover heat from the Big Bang. Microwave wavelengths are relatively long compared to optical wavelengths.
Redshift
When the spectral lines shift towards the red end of the spectrum, we infer that the wavelength has stretched. This is called a "redshift."

Photographs

Precise laboratory experiments like the one shown here measure the energy of empty space.
Casimir Force Experiment
Precise laboratory experiments like the one shown here measure the energy of empty space.
High-redshift supernovae, together with their host galaxies.
High-Redshift Supernovae
High-redshift supernovae, together with their host galaxies.
Hubble Space Telescope panoramic view of thousands of galaxies in various stages of evolution.
Hubble Panorama
Hubble Space Telescope panoramic view of thousands of galaxies in various stages of evolution.
Hubble Space Telescope
One of NASA's most productive scientific satellites.
Edwin hubble at the telescope
Hubble, Edwin
Edwin Hubble seated at the 100-inch Hooker telescope at Mt. Wilson Observatory.
Large Magellanic Cloud
Large Magellanic Cloud
The Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the first galaxies outside our own to be studied.
Leavitt, Henrietta Swan
The work of Henrietta Swan Leavitt on variable stars led to a revolution in understanding the scale of the universe.
Milky Way galaxy
Milky Way Galaxy
Edge-on view of the Milky Way.
PanSTARRS telescope
Pan-STARRS Telescope
This PanSTARRS telescope will find thousands of supernovae in the next decade.
Type Ia supernovae, like the one shown here in the outskirts of galaxy NGC 4526, have been used to trace the influence of dark e
Supernova Type 1a Next to Galaxy
Type Ia supernovae, like the one shown here in the outskirts of galaxy NGC 4526, have been used to trace the influence of dark energy on the expansion of the universe.
X-ray images of galaxy clusters observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory.
X-ray Images of Galaxy Clusters
X-ray images of galaxy clusters observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

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Graphics

The abundance of light elements indicates that most of the universe is not protons, neutrons, or electrons.
Abundance of Light Elements
The abundance of light elements indicates that most of the universe is not protons, neutrons, or electrons.
Combining evidence from supernova and the CMB makes a strong case for dark energy.
Combined Evidence for Dark Energy
Combining evidence from supernova and the CMB makes a strong case for dark energy.
The composition of the universe, with 96 percent invisible and unfamiliar.
Components of the Universe
The composition of the universe, with 96 percent invisible and unfamiliar.
WMAP
Cosmic Microwave Background
Dark energy is now the dominant factor pushing the universe to expand.
three graphics of the geometry of space
Density and Geometry
The geometry of the universe depends on its density.
In Einstein's General Relativity, mass warps the fabric of space.
Einstein's Gravitational Warp
In Einstein's theory of general relativity, mass warps the fabric of space.
Hubble diagram, plotting velocity vs. distance for galaxies outside our own.
Hubble Diagram
Hubble diagram, plotting velocity vs. distance for galaxies outside our own.
The Joint Dark Energy Mission will make precise measurements of the effects dark energy from space.
Joint Dark Energy Mission
The Joint Dark Energy Mission will make precise measurements of the effects of dark energy from space.
Light curve of SN Ia supernovae
Light Curves
Light curve shape standardization.
The future scale of the universe depends on the nature of dark energy.
Models of the Universe
The future scale of the universe depends on the nature of dark energy.
Modern Hubble Diagram
Adding high-redshift supernovae to the Hubble diagram revealed the effects of dark energy.
In Einstein's theory of gravity, space is warped but featureless.
Spacetime in General Relativity
In Einstein's theory of gravity, space is warped but featureless.
The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect allows astronomers to find the signature of galaxy clusters in the CMB.
Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect
The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect allows astronomers to find the signature of galaxy clusters in the CMB.
Cosmic microwave background graphic
Timeline of the Universe
Dark energy is now the dominant factor pushing the universe to expand.
supernovae Ia spectrum
Type Ia Supernova Spectrum
The spectrum of a Type Ia supernova, shown here, distinguishes it from other supernova types.