Physics for the 21st Century logo

Visuals: Photographs

1997 Nobel Prize Winners
Recipients of the 1997 Nobel Prize, for laser cooling and trapping of atoms. (Unit: 5)
Adding a Second Condensate
The matter copy continues the journey. (Unit: 7)
Apollo Mission Corner Cubes
Apollo mission astronauts deploy corner cube reflectors. (Unit: 3)
Atoms in a MOT
Atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap. (Unit: 5)
Atoms in an Optical Lattice
Neutral rubidium atoms in an optical lattice trap. (Unit: 5)
Axion Dark Matter Experiment
If dark matter consists of axions, the ADMX experiment might detect them within a decade. (Unit: 10)
Bacterial Photo
The left panel shows the projected image of students and professors who participated in the project, and the right panel shows the bacterial photo. (Unit: 9)
Bar Detector
Nautilus cryogenic antenna at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Italy. (Unit: 3)
Bardeen, John
John Bardeen, with Leon Cooper and Robert Schrieffer, was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on the BCS theory. (Unit: 8)
BEC Vortices
The formation of vortices in this BEC shows that it is a superfluid. (Unit: 6)
Bohm, David
David Bohm's life involved a series of contradictions. Refused security clearance for work on the atom bomb during World War II, he made critical contributions to the development of the bomb. (Unit: 8)
Brainbow
Rainbow images showing individual neurons fluorescing in different colors. By tracking the neurons through stacks of slices, we can follow each neuron's complex branching structure to create the treelike structures. (Unit: 9)
Bubble Chamber
An abandoned bubble chamber at Fermilab. (Unit: 1)
Bullet Cluster
Contrasting x-ray and light images of the Bullet Cluster reveal strong evidence for the existence of dark matter. (Unit: 10)
Candlestick Atomic Beam Source
The atom source in the experimental setup is specially designed and is called the "candlestick atomic beam source." (Unit: 7)
Casimir Force Experiment
Precise laboratory experiments like the one shown here measure the energy of empty space. (Unit: 11)
Coma Cluster
The Coma cluster which provided the first evidence that dark matter exists. (Unit: 10)
Communication with Apollo 11
Flight controllers Charles Duke (Capcom), Jim Lovell (backup CDR), and Fred Haise (backup LMP) during lunar module descent. (Unit: 7)
Conservative and Non-conservative Forces
An example of conservative (right) and non-conservative (left) forces. (Unit: 2)
Cosmic String Lensing
A cosmic string could produce a double image of a galaxy behind it. (Unit: 4)
Cotton Ball Model
A cotton ball model of an atom. (Unit: 6)
Crab Nebula
This recent image from the Chandra x-ray telescope shows the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion seen on earth in 1054 AD that accompanied the formation of a rapidly rotating neutron star at its center. (Unit: 8)
DAMA/LIBRA Project
A technician works on detectors for the DAMA/LIBRA project, which stimulated the theory of dark forces. (Unit: 10)
Dark Matter Simulation
The distribution of dark matter in the universe. (Unit: 10)
Darwin's Finches
The variation in Galapagos finches inspired Charles Darwin's thinking on evolution, but may evolve too fast for his theory. (Unit: 9)
Dye Laser
Adjustment of one of the dye lasers. (Unit: 7)
Early Accelerators
The first cyclotron, the Bevatron, and particle tracks. (Unit: 1)
Egg
A chicken egg. Is it alive or dead? (Unit: 9)
Einstein, Albert
Some of Einstein's great insights began in thought experiments. (Unit: 4)
Faraday and Maxwell
Michael Faraday (left) and James Clerk Maxwell (right) unified electricity and magnetism in classical field theory. (Unit: 2)
Fermilab's CDF Detector
The CDF detector at Fermilab captured evidence for the existence of the top quark. (Unit: 1)
Fermilab's Search for Axions
Axion hunters: two Fermilab physicists with their experiment designed to detect axions. (Unit: 10)
Fermilab's Tevatron
Aerial view of the Tevatron at Fermilab. (Unit: 1)
Feynman, Richard
Richard Feynman was a major contributor to field of physics. (Unit: 2)
g-2 Experiment
Gerald Gabrielse (left) is shown with the apparatus he used to make some of the most precise measurements of a single electron. (Unit: 5)
Gage, Phineas
In 1848, a steel rod shot through the left cheek the Phineas Gage and exited through the top of his head. Gage never lost consciousness and lived another 13 years. (Unit: 9)
Galaxy Cluster
Clusters of galaxies contain significantly more dark matter than visible matter. (Unit: 10)
Glass
As a glass cools, the viscosity increases so rapidly that the atoms get frozen in a disordered state. (Unit: 9)
Heisenberg and Schrödinger
Left: Werner Heisenberg; right: Erwin Schrödinger. (Unit: 5)
Higgs Boson
Presenting limits on the Higgs boson's mass. (Unit: 1)
High-Redshift Supernovae
High-redshift supernovae, together with their host galaxies. (Unit: 11)
Highly Directional Semiconductor Lasers
Highly directional semiconductor lasers are quantum cascade lasers patterned with a plasmonic collimator which greatly reduces the divergence in the vertical direction. (Unit: 8)
Hubble Panorama
Hubble Space Telescope panoramic view of thousands of galaxies in various stages of evolution. (Unit: 11)
Hubble Space Telescope
One of NASA's most productive scientific satellites. (Unit: 11)
Hubble, Edwin
Edwin Hubble seated at the 100-inch Hooker telescope at Mt. Wilson Observatory. (Unit: 11)
Hummingbird
Ruby-throated hummingbird (Unit: 9)
Industrial Furnace
This furnace for melting glass is nearly an ideal blackbody radiation source. (Unit: 5)
Kaluza and Klein
Theodor Kaluza (left) and Oskar Klein (right) made a remarkable theoretical description of gravity in a fifth dimension. (Unit: 4)
Landau, Lev
Landau impacted theoretical physics over much of the 20th century. (Unit: 8)
Large Hadron Collider
Inside the Large Hadron Collider tunnel during construction. (Unit: 1)
Large Hadron Collider
The LHC creates the highest-energy collisions on Earth, but these are irrelevant to Planck-scale physics. (Unit: 4)
Large Magellanic Cloud
The Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the first galaxies outside our own to be studied. (Unit: 11)
Leavitt, Henrietta Swan
The work of Henrietta Swan Leavitt on variable stars led to a revolution in understanding the scale of the universe. (Unit: 11)
LIGO Observatory
Aerial view of the LIGO Observatory at Hanford, Washington. (Unit: 3)
London, Fritz
Fritz London was a seminal figure in the early days of quantum mechanics through his pioneering work on the chemical bond, the measurement problem, and to our understanding of superfluidity and superconductivity. (Unit: 8)
MACHO Project
This Australian telescope unsuccessfully sought evidence for the existence of MACHOs based on their putative effect on starlight. (Unit: 10)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Superconducting magnets enable MRI machines to produce dramatic images. (Unit: 6)
Meissner Effect
A photograph such as this of a levitating magnet is arguably the iconic image for superconductivity. (Unit: 8)
Mendeleev and Lewis
The father and son of chemical periodicity: Dmitri Mendeleev and Gilbert Newton Lewis. (Unit: 6)
Milky Way Galaxy
Edge-on view of the Milky Way. (Unit: 11)
Mott, Nevill
Nevill Mott was a world leader in atomic and solid-state physics during a career in theoretical physics that spanned over sixty years. (Unit: 8)
Nanowires
Nanowires are crystalline fibers with emergent behaviors expected to be used for nanoscale applications. (Unit: 8)
Next-Generation Clock
The heart of a next-generation optical clock. (Unit: 5)
Onsager, Lars
Lars Onsager, a physical chemist and theoretical physicist who possessed extraordinary mathematical talent and physical insight. (Unit: 8)
Oppenheimer, Robert
The first director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Robert Oppenheimer (ca. 1944) was a brilliant theoretical physicist and inspired teacher who became famous for his remarkably effective leadership of the Manhattan Project. (Unit: 8)
Optical Setup
A view of the optics table. (Unit: 7)
Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR)
An optical time domain reflectometer in use. (Unit: 7)
Pan-STARRS Telescope
This PanSTARRS telescope will find thousands of supernovae in the next decade. (Unit: 11)
Panofsky, Wolfgang
Wolfgang Panofsky refused to swear a loyalty oath that he did not belong to the communist party. (Unit: 1)
Peebles and Ostriker
James Peebles (left) and Jeremiah Ostriker (right) found evidence for dark matter in their computer simulations. (Unit: 10)
Planck, Max
Max Planck solved the blackbody problem by introducing quanta of energy. (Unit: 5)
Plum Pudding Model
Plum pudding (or raisin scone) model of the atom. (Unit: 6)
Polarized Light Through Corn Syrup
As polarized light passes through corn syrup, which is full of right-handed sugar molecules, its plane of polarization is rotated. (Unit: 9)
Positron Track from a Cloud Chamber
Carl Anderson, Paul Dirac, and a positron track observed in a cloud chamber. (Unit: 1)
Preparation for an Experimental Run
Running the experimental setup requires a great focus. (Unit: 7)
Quantum Computer With Two Qubit
A two-bit quantum computer implemented with two beryllium ions trapped in a slit in an alumina substrate with gold electrodes. (Unit: 7)
Rabi, Isidor Isaac
Isidor Isaac Rabi pioneered atomic physics in the U.S. during the 1930s, invented magnetic resonance, and first suggested the possibility of an atomic clock. (Unit: 5)
Ripples in Lake
Ripples in lake from a rock. (Unit: 2)
Ripples on a Pond
A circular wave created by tossing a pebble in a pond. (Unit: 5)
Rubik's Cube
A Rubik's Cube is a familiar example of a hierarchical distribution of states. (Unit: 9)
Rubin, Vera
In the 1970s Vera Cooper Rubin and Kent Ford made observations of galaxies that led them to infer that the galaxies must contain dark matter. (Unit: 10)
Saint Hans—Midsummer Celebration in Denmark
Saint Hans bonfire—Midsummer celebration in Skagen, Denmark. (Unit: 7)
Savannah River Plant
Aerial view of South Carolina's Savannah River nuclear reactor. (Unit: 1)
Scanning Tunneling Microscope
Left: A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a powerful instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. Right: Inhomogeneous energy gaps in BSCCO. (Unit: 8)
Shark Cartilage
Cartilage from the fin of the Mako shark. (Unit: 9)
Single and Two-Slit Interference
Diffraction of laser light through one (top) and two (bottom) small slits. (Unit: 5)
SLAC's B Factory
Detector under construction at SLAC's B factory. (Unit: 1)
Stability
The weakness of gravity is difficult to maintain in quantum mechanical theory, much as it is difficult to balance a pencil on its tip. (Unit: 4)
Star-Forming Region
Hubble Space Telescope image of a star-forming region in the Small Magellanic Cloud. (Unit: 3)
Stern-Gerlach Experiment
The Stern-Gerlach experiment demonstrated that spin is quantized. (Unit: 6)
Structure in the Cosmos
While the universe appears approximately uniform, we see varied and beautiful structure on smaller scales. (Unit: 4)
Sudbury Neutrino Detector
The Sudbury Neutrino Detector led to the discovery of the neutrino's mass. (Unit: 1)
Super-Kamiokande Experiment
The nearly full water tank of the Super-Kamiokande experiment, which searches for nucleon decay. (Unit: 2)
Superfluid Motion without Resistance
Like the condensate, these coupled dancers came together when the music started and continued in a fluid motion next to each other without bumping into each other or stepping on each other's toes. (Unit: 8)
Supermassive Black Hole
As gas falls into this supermassive black hole, it emits x-rays. (Unit: 3)
Supernova Type 1a Next to Galaxy
Type Ia supernovae, like the one shown here in the outskirts of galaxy NGC 4526, have been used to trace the influence of dark energy on the expansion of the universe. (Unit: 11)
Torsion Pendulum to Measure UFF
Torsion pendulum to test the universality of free fall. (Unit: 3)
Trapped Ions
Thirty-two ions, fluorescing under illumination by laser light in an electrodynamic trap. (Unit: 5)
Turning Light Into Matter
Turning light into matter with the creation of a perfect matter copy of the extinguished light pulse. (Unit: 7)
Two Influential Scientists: Newton and Einstein
Portraits of Sir Isaac Newton (left) and Albert Einstein (right). (Unit: 3)
Uncertainty in a Baseball
The effect of quantum mechanical jitter on a pitcher, fortunately, is too small to be observable. (Unit: 5)
Vela X-ray
Chandra X-ray telescope image of the Vela supernova remnant shows dramatic bow-like structures produced by the interaction of radiation and electron beams coming from the rapidly rotating neutron star in its center. (Unit: 8)
Wake Vortex
Colored smoke marks the hydrodynamic flow around an aircraft, an emergent phenomenon. (Unit: 9)
X-ray Images of Galaxy Clusters
X-ray images of galaxy clusters observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. (Unit: 11)
Yang and Mills
Chen-Ning Yang and Robert Mills created a mathematical construct that lay the groundwork for future efforts to unify the forces of nature. (Unit: 2)
Zwicky, Fritz
Fritz Zwicky suggested the existence of dark matter, and also predicted the transition of ordinary stars into neutron stars and that galaxies could act as gravitational lenses. (Unit: 10)