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Visuals: Graphics

The 2dF Redshift Galaxy Survey
2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey
Galactic studies such as the "2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey" will improve our understanding of the distribution of dark and normal matter. (Unit: 10)
The abundance of light elements indicates that most of the universe is not protons, neutrons, or electrons.
Abundance of Light Elements
The abundance of light elements indicates that most of the universe is not protons, neutrons, or electrons. (Unit: 11)
The apparent equivalence between gravity and acceleration.
Acceleration and Gravity
A person in an accelerating rocket feels the same downward pull as a person on Earth feels from gravity. (Unit: 3)
artist's rendition of a black hole
Accreting Black Hole
Artist's conception of a black hole accreting matter from a companion star. (Unit: 4)
AdS/CFT duality
AdS/CFT Duality
The AdS/CFT duality relates a theory on the boundary of a region to a theory with gravity in the interior. (Unit: 4)
Schematic diagram of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), also known as ARUPS (angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemi
ARPES
Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is a direct experimental technique to observe the distribution of the electrons (more precisely, the density of single-particle electronic excitations) in the reciprocal space of solids. (Unit: 8)
Sketch of experimental setup used to created ultracold atoms.
Atom Refrigerator Sketch
Sketch of experimental setup used to created ultracold atoms. (Unit: 7)
Schematic diagram of an atomic fountain clock.
Atomic Fountain
Schematic diagram of an atomic fountain clock. (Unit: 5)
An illustration of the process by which a BCS quasiparticle becomes a mixture of a normal state quasiparticle and quasihole and
BCS Quasiparticle Formation
An illustration of the process by which a BCS quasiparticle becomes a mixture of a normal state quasiparticle and quasihole and in so doing acquires an energy gap. (Unit: 8)
Super-oscillations of a quantum gas and their dissipation on heating
BEC Oscillations
Super-oscillations of a quantum gas and their dissipation on heating. (Unit: 6)
Bending of light in an accelerating rocket.
Bending of Light
Bending of light in an accelerating rocket. (Unit: 3)
An example of beta decay.
Beta Decay
An example of beta decay. (Unit: 2)
Beta Decay Spectrum diagram
Beta Decay Spectrum
Beta decay spectrum: The puzzling process explained by the detection of the neutrino. (Unit: 1)
Graph of binary pulsar decay
Binary Pulsar Decay
Orbital period of the binary neutron star system PSR 1913+15 measured from 1975 to 2000. (Unit: 3)
This sequence logo is a compact way of displaying information contained in a piece of genetic material.
Binding Site Logo
This sequence logo is a compact way of displaying information contained in a piece of genetic material. (Unit: 9)
Zeros and ones
Bits and Binary Numbers
Classical computers use bits that can be valued either 0 or 1. (Unit: 7)
A VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) image of jets from a black hole could not have been produced without atomic clocks.
Black Hole Jet
This VLBI image of jets from a black hole could not have been produced without atomic clocks. (Unit: 5)
blackbody spectra
Blackbody Spectra
The spectrum of blackbody radiation at different temperatures. (Unit: 6)
Model of the atom by Niels Bohr
Bohr's Model of the Atom
Model of the atom by Niels Bohr. (Unit: 5)
Atoms in a Bose condensate at 0 K.
Bose Condensate
Atoms in a Bose condensate at 0 K. (Unit: 6)
Some of the first experimental evidence for a gaseous macroscopic quantum state.
Bose-Einstein Condensation
Some of the first experimental evidence for a gaseous macroscopic quantum state. (Unit: 6)
Some of the first experimental evidence for a gaseous macroscopic quantum state.
Bose-Einstein Condensation
Three stages of cooling, and a quantum phase transition to a BEC. (Unit: 6)
Atoms in a trap at 0 K: bosons form a BEC (left) and fermions form a degenerate Fermi gas (right).
Bosons and Fermions
Atoms in a trap at 0 K: bosons form a BEC (left) and fermions form a degenerate Fermi gas (right). (Unit: 6)
branes and antibranes
Brane Inflation
A brane and an antibrane moving toward one another and colliding could have caused inflation and the Big Bang. (Unit: 4)
p branes
Branes and Strings
Strings can break open and end on a brane. (Unit: 4)
Turning light into matter in one Bose-Einstein condensate and then matter back into light in a second BEC in a different locatio
Carrying Around Light Pulses
Turning light into matter in one Bose-Einstein condensate and then matter back into light in a second BEC in a different location. (Unit: 7)
Causal Dynamical Triangulation builds the spacetime in which we live from tiny triangles.
Causal Dynamical Triangulation
Causal Dynamical Triangulation builds the spacetime in which we live from tiny triangles. (Unit: 3)
The Michelson interferometer now finds application in a 21st century experiment: the search for gravitational waves. The diagram
Classic Michelson Interferometer
The Michelson interferometer now finds application in a 21st century experiment: the search for gravitational waves. The diagram shows the original version of the instrument. (Unit: 3)
Combining evidence from supernova and the CMB makes a strong case for dark energy.
Combined Evidence for Dark Energy
Combining evidence from supernova and the CMB makes a strong case for dark energy. (Unit: 11)
image representing light transforming to matter and back to light
Coming Full Circle
Was Newton right after all: "Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another... ?" (Unit: 7)
Compactification: An extra dimension can curl up in a manner that is nearly impossible to discern for an inhabitant of the large
Compactification
An extra dimension can curl up in a manner that is nearly impossible to discern for an inhabitant of the larger, uncurled dimensions. (Unit: 2)
String theorists generally believe that extra dimensions are compactified, or curled up
Compactified Extra Dimension
String theorists generally believe that extra dimensions are compactified, or curled up. (Unit: 4)
A schematic view of what constitutes a complex adaptive system.
Complex Adaptive Behavior
A schematic view of what constitutes a complex adaptive system. (Unit: 9)
While the complex part of a quantum wavefunction
Complex Quantum Wave
While the complex part of a quantum wavefunction "waves," the probability density does not. (Unit: 6)
The composition of the universe, with 96 percent invisible and unfamiliar.
Components of the Universe
The composition of the universe, with 96 percent invisible and unfamiliar. (Unit: 11)
Protons in LHC collisions (left) and electrons in a superconductor (right) are examples of composite fermions and bosons.
Composite Fermions and Bosons
Protons in LHC collisions (left) and electrons in a superconductor (right) are examples of composite fermions and bosons. (Unit: 6)
This Feynman diagram representing a composite Higgs and top quark is a part of the Higgs mass calculation in a supersymmetric mo
Composite Higgs
This Feynman diagram representing a composite Higgs and top quark is a part of the Higgs mass calculation in a supersymmetric model. (Unit: 2)
Arthur Holly Compton discovered that the frequency of light can change as it scatters off of matter.
Compton Scattering
Arthur Holly Compton (left) discovered that the frequency of light can change as it scatters off of matter. (Unit: 2)
Schematic of a modern digital computer.
Computer Schematic
Schematic of a modern digital computer. (Unit: 9)
In the interaction shown here, the net electromagnetic charge of the system is -2 throughout the interaction.
Conserved Charge
The total amount of electric charge is conserved, even in complicated interactions like this one. (Unit: 2)
Constituents of the Universe
Constituents of the Universe
The composition of the universe, with 96 percent invisible and unfamiliar. (Unit: 10)
Cosmic Microwave Background
Cosmic Microwave Background
Map of the temperature variations in the cosmic microwave background measured by the WMAP satellite. (Unit: 10)
Cosmic Microwave Background measured by WMAP team
Cosmic Microwave Background
Dark energy is now the dominant factor pushing the universe to expand. (Unit: 11)
Map of the temperature variations in the cosmic microwave background measured by the WMAP satellite.
Cosmic Microwave Background
Map of the temperature variations in the cosmic microwave background measured by the WMAP satellite. (Unit: 4)
cosmic microwave background spectrum
Cosmic Microwave Background Spectrum
Spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation. (Unit: 5)
Creation of the Earliest Elements
Creation of the Earliest Elements
This series of reactions created the lightest elements in the infant universe. (Unit: 10)
A candidate phase diagram based, in part, on magnetic measurements of normal state behavior, for the cuprate superconductors.
Cuprate Superconductors
A candidate phase diagram based, in part, on magnetic measurements of normal state behavior, for the cuprate superconductors. (Unit: 8)
Triangles on curved surfaces
Curved Spacetime
Triangles on curved surfaces. (Unit: 3)
three graphics of the geometry of space
Density and Geometry
The geometry of the universe depends on its density. (Unit: 11)
Detecting the direcion of the WIMP wind
Detecting the Direction of the WIMP Wind
If they exist, WIMPs could stream toward Earth in a specific direction in a "WIMP wind" that might be experimentally detectable. (Unit: 10)
Diffraction of green laser light passing though a random medium.
Diffraction in Random Media
Diffraction of green laser light passing though a random medium. (Unit: 6)
This diffraction pattern appeared when a beam of sodium molecules encountered a series of small slits, showing their wave-like n
Diffraction of Atoms
This diffraction pattern appeared when a beam of sodium molecules encountered a series of small slits, showing their wave-like nature. (Unit: 5)
Discovering quarks at SLAC
Discovering Quarks at the SLAC
Overview of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. (Unit: 1)
The DNA double helix, in three of its possible configurations.
DNA Configurations
The DNA double helix, in three of its possible configurations. (Unit: 9)
Red-detuned lasers don't affect an atom at rest (left) but will slow an atom moving towards the light source (right).
Doppler Cooling
Red-detuned lasers don't affect an atom at rest (left) but will slow an atom moving towards the light source (right). (Unit: 5)
An early version of Mendeleev's Periodic Table, showing the positions of missing elements.
Early Periodic Table
An early version of Mendeleev's Periodic Table, showing the positions of missing elements. (Unit: 6)
Schematic diagram of how the interaction between electrons is modified by their coupling to phonons or the electronic polarizati
Effective Interaction
The net effective interaction between electrons in a metal. (Unit: 8)
In Einstein's General Relativity, mass warps the fabric of space.
Einstein's Gravitational Warp
In Einstein's theory of general relativity, mass warps the fabric of space. (Unit: 11)
Electromagnetic Spectrum from radio waves to gamma rays.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to gamma rays. (Unit: 5)
Electron interference pattern
Electron Interference
An interference pattern builds up as individual electrons pass through two slits. (Unit: 5)
An illustration comparing the electronic band structures of metals, semiconductors, and insulators.
Electronic Band Structure
Comparison of the electronic band structures of metals, semiconductors, and insulators. (Unit: 8)
Comparison of Shielding Forces.
Electrostatic and Gravitational Shielding
Comparison of the shielding of electrostatic and gravitational forces. (Unit: 3)
This chart shows the known fundamental particles—those of matter and those of force.
Elementary Particles
This chart shows the known fundamental particles—those of matter and those of force. (Unit: 2)
Two possible paths across an energy landscape strewn with local minima.
Energy Landscape
Here, we see two possible paths across an energy landscape strewn with local minima. (Unit: 9)
The picture here shows two different enzymes (purple) that read and replicate the DNA molecule (multi-colored).
Enzymes
The enzyme on the left has a much easier time reading DNA than the enzyme on the right due to structural details that are difficult to predict from first principles. (Unit: 9)
The consequences of strings winding around a larger extra dimension are the same as strings moving around a smaller extra dimens
Equivalent String Configurations
The consequences of strings winding around a larger extra dimension are the same as strings moving around a smaller extra dimension. (Unit: 4)
Evaporative cooling into the ground state.
Evaporative Cooling
Evaporative cooling into the ground state. (Unit: 7)
expanding universe graphic
Expanding Universe
General relativity is consistent with all the cosmological data that characterizes our visible universe. (Unit: 4)
Expanding Universe: If we run time backwards, the entire universe collapses into a single, infinitely dense point.
Expanding Universe
If we run time backwards, the entire universe collapses into a single, infinitely dense point. (Unit: 4)
graph of experimental limits on inverse square law violations.
Experimental Limits on ISL Violations
Experimental limits on the universality of free fall. (Unit: 3)
Experimental Setup for Slow Light
Experimental Setup for Slow Light
Experimental realization of slow light. (Unit: 7)
A depiction of one of the six-dimensional spaces that seem promising for string compactification
Extra-Dimensional Space
A depiction of one of the six-dimensional spaces that seem promising for string compactification. (Unit: 4)
Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has spotted an excess of normal matter particles that may have arisen when WIMPs annihilated each other. (Unit: 10)
Illustration of a simple Fermi surface of copper. The blue outline relates to the lattice.
Fermi Surface with Holes and Electrons
The Fermi surface reveals how the energy varies with momentum for the highest-energy electrons—those that have the Fermi energy. (Unit: 8)
In this Feynman diagram of a jet, a single quark decays into a shower of quarks and gluons.
Feynman Diagram of a Jet
In this Feynman diagram of a jet, a single quark decays into a shower of quarks and gluons. (Unit: 2)
Feynman diagram representing a simple scattering of two particles (left) and a more complicated scattering process involving two
Feynman diagrams
Feynman diagram representing a simple scattering of two particles (left) and a more complicated scattering process involving two particles (right). (Unit: 2)
Natural selection can be viewed as movement on a fitness landscape.
Fitness Landscape
Natural selection can be viewed as movement on a fitness landscape. (Unit: 9)
Left: picture of tire on a road. Right: a microscopic view of friction showing molecules.
Friction, Close Up
A microscopic view of friction. (Unit: 2)
This simple system of three spins is frustrated, and has no clear ground state.
Frustrated Spin System
This simple system of three spins is frustrated, and has no clear ground state. (Unit: 9)
A table of three generations of fundamental particles.
Fundamental Particles
Three generations of quarks and leptons. (Unit: 1)
Observed and predicted rotation curves for the galaxy M33, also known as the Triangulum galaxy.
Galactic Case for Dark Matter
Observed and predicted rotation curves for the galaxy M33, also known as the "Triangulum Galaxy." (Unit: 10)
Grace Mission map
GRACE Mission
GRACE mission gravity map of the Earth. (Unit: 3)
gravity force of two spheres
Gravitational Attraction
Gravitational attraction between two spheres causes a tiny change in their positions. (Unit: 3)
The gravitational field lines spread out radially from a massive particle.
Gravitational Field Lines
The gravitational field lines spread out radially from a massive particle. (Unit: 4)
Schematic of a laser interferometer that can detect gravitational waves.
Gravitational Wave Detector
Schematic of a laser interferometer that can detect gravitational waves. (Unit: 2)
Distortion of space from a gravitational wave
Gravitational Waves
Distortion of space from a gravitational wave. (Unit: 3)
Gravitons arise naturally in string theory, leading to Feynman diagrams like the one on the right.
Graviton Exchange
Gravitons arise naturally in string theory, leading to Feynman diagrams like the one on the right. (Unit: 4)
Gravity leaking into extra dimensions could explain the hierarchy problem.
Gravity and Extra Dimensions
Gravity leaking into extra dimensions could explain the hierarchy problem. (Unit: 4)
The ground state of helium: energy levels and electron probability distribution
Ground State of Helium
The ground state of helium: energy levels and electron probability distribution. (Unit: 6)
simple harmonic oscillator and energy diagram
Harmonic Oscillator
A simple harmonic oscillator (bottom) and its energy diagram (top). (Unit: 5)
harmonic oscillator energy levels
Harmonic Oscillator Energy Levels
Low-lying energy levels of a harmonic oscillator. (Unit: 5)
harmonic oscillator, n-40
Harmonic Oscillator, n=40
The wavefunction (left) and probability distribution (right) of a harmonic oscillator in the state n = 40. (Unit: 5)
Hawking radiation graphic
Hawking Radiation
Black holes radiate by a quantum mechanical process. (Unit: 4)
Helium atom
Helium Atom
Mass of a helium atom is not equal to the sum of its constituent parts. (Unit: 3)
The two isotopes of helium: a boson and a fermion.
Helium Isotopes
The two isotopes of helium: a fermion and a boson. (Unit: 6)
Temperature-pressure phase diagrams of the two quantum materials, <sup>3</sup>He and <sup>4</sup>He, that remain liquid down to
Helium Phases
Temperature-pressure phase diagrams of the two quantum materials, 3He and 4He, that remain liquid down to the lowest temperatures in the absence of pressure compared to a typical liquid-solid phase diagram. (Unit: 8)
horizon problem
Horizon Problem
Both sides of the universe look the same, although light could not have traveled from one side to the other. (Unit: 4)
Hubble diagram, plotting velocity vs. distance for galaxies outside our own.
Hubble Diagram
Hubble diagram, plotting velocity vs. distance for galaxies outside our own. (Unit: 11)
Hydrogen Atom
Hydrogen Atom
The size of a hydrogen atom is determined by the uncertainty principle. (Unit: 5)
spectrum of atomic hydrogen
Hydrogen Spectrum
The spectrum of atomic hydrogen. (Unit: 5)
cosmic inflation
Inflation
During the period of inflation, the universe grew by a factor of at least 1025. (Unit: 4)
inflaton potential
Inflaton Potential
A potential like the one shown above for the inflaton field could have caused inflation. (Unit: 4)
Top panel shows a sketch of the set up of an INS experiment. Bottom panel shows a typical phonon spectrum obtained through an el
INS and Phonon Spectrum
Top: Experimental set-up for measurement of energy loss spectrum of neutrons that are inelastically scattered by a crystal. Bottom: A typical phonon spectrum obtained through an elastic neutron scattering (INS) experiment. (Unit: 8)
Interference of two coherent BECs, separated and allowed to recombine.
Interfering Bose-Einstein Condensates
Interference of two coherent BECs, separated and allowed to recombine. (Unit: 6)
Internal, quantized energy levels of the atom.
Internal Energy Levels of a Sodium Atom
Internal, quantized energy levels of the atom. (Unit: 7)
graph of inverse beta decay-black lines and letters on white background
Inverse Beta Decay
The inverse beta decay that revealed the neutrino. (Unit: 1)
The Joint Dark Energy Mission will make precise measurements of the effects dark energy from space.
Joint Dark Energy Mission
The Joint Dark Energy Mission will make precise measurements of the effects of dark energy from space. (Unit: 11)
Kaon-Box Diagram
Kaon-Box Diagram
Neutral kaon oscillation. (Unit: 1)
A candidate phase diagram for CeRhIn<sub>5</sub> depicting the changes in its emergent behavior and ordering temperatures as a f
Kondo Lattice Scaling Behavior
A candidate phase diagram for CeRhIn5 depicting the changes in its emergent behavior and ordering temperatures as a function of pressure. (Unit: 8)
Quantum effects meet general relativity somewhere near the center of this length scale.
Length Scale
Quantum effects meet general relativity somewhere near the center of this length scale. (Unit: 4)
The Lewis shell model for the first three atoms in the modern periodic table.
Lewis Shell Model
The Lewis shell model for the first three atoms in the modern periodic table. (Unit: 6)
Electrons in atomic energy levels for Li, Na, and K.
Li, Na, and K Energy Levels
Electrons in atomic energy levels for Li, Na, and K. (Unit: 6)
Light curve of SN Ia supernovae
Light Curves
Light curve shape standardization. (Unit: 11)
LISA satellites
LISA Satellites
Artist's conception of the LISA satellites in space. (Unit: 3)
loop quantum gravity
Loop Quantum Gravity
Visualization of a stage in the quantum evolution of geometry, according to Loop Quantum Gravity. (Unit: 3)
The LUX experiment
LUX Detector
The Large Underground Xenon detector will have 100 times more sensitivity to WIMPs than previous detection methods. (Unit: 10)
Magnetic interaction potential in a lattice.
Magnetic Interaction
Magnetic interaction potential in a lattice. (Unit: 8)
Schematic diagram of the magnetic quasiparticle interaction between spins s and s'.
Magnetic Quasiparticle Interaction
The magnetic quasiparticle interaction between spins s and s'. (Unit: 8)
Matter and Antimatter periodic tables
Matter and Antimatter
Matter and antimatter: An imperfect mirror. (Unit: 1)
Measurement of ultra-slow light in a cold atom cloud.
Measurement of Ultra-Slow Light
Measurement of ultra-slow light in a cold atom cloud. (Unit: 7)
A periodic table showing mesons and baryons
Mesons and Baryons
The periodic table for heavier mesons and baryons. (Unit: 1)
The electron on the left has an effective rotation that is counter-clockwise when looked at along the direction of motion (i.e.,
Mirror Symmetry
For the weak force, an electron's mirror image is a different type of object. (Unit: 2)
The future scale of the universe depends on the nature of dark energy.
Models of the Universe
The future scale of the universe depends on the nature of dark energy. (Unit: 11)
Modern Hubble Diagram
Modern Hubble Diagram
Adding high-redshift supernovae to the Hubble diagram revealed the effects of dark energy. (Unit: 11)
Interference pattern created by the overlap of two clouds of molecular BECs, each composed of <sup>6</sup>Li<sub>2</sub> diatomi
Molecular BEC interference
Interference pattern created by the overlap of two clouds of molecular BECs, each composed of 6Li2 diatomic molecules. (Unit: 6)
Radiation emitted by objects in the Milky Way from long wavelengths to short wavelengths
Multiwavelength Milky Way
Our galaxy, imaged at many different wavelengths. (Unit: 6)
A plot representing muon decay
Muon Decay
The muon's most common decay path. (Unit: 1)
The structure of myoglobin on the left and the form it actually takes in space on the right.
Myoglobin
The structure of myoglobin (left) and the form it actually takes in space (right). (Unit: 9)
Natural selection and fitness
Natural Selection
Sewall Wright sketched the path different populations might take on the fitness landscape. (Unit: 9)
Examples of neutral objects.
Neutralized Charges
Neutralized charges in QED and QCD. (Unit: 2)
schematic image of neutron decay
Neutron Decay
Neutron decay from the inside. (Unit: 2)
Schematic diagram of the cross section of a neutron star.
Neutron Star Cross-Section
A cross section of a neutron star shows the rich variety of emergent quantum matter expected in its crust and core. (Unit: 8)
Law of universal gravitation force diagram.
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
Law of universal gravitation force diagram. (Unit: 3)
atomic fountain
NIST F1 Clock
This apparatus houses the NIST F1 cesium fountain clock, which is the primary time and frequency standard of the United States. (Unit: 5)
This chart shows that not every imaginable nucleus is stable.
Nuclides
As this chart shows, not every imaginable nucleus is stable. (Unit: 6)
Atoms trapped in an optical lattice.
Optical Lattice
Atoms trapped in an optical lattice. (Unit: 5)
giant plastic ball in valley
Origin of Particles
All the Standard Model particles could have been produced by the inflaton oscillating around its ground state like a ball rolling around in a valley. (Unit: 4)
Bohr's classic helium models
Oscillating Model of Helium Atom
A simple classical model fails to explain the stability of the helium atom. (Unit: 6)
wave graphic
Particle in a Box
The first three allowed de Broglie wave modes for a particle in a box. (Unit: 5)
Periodic Table of Elements
Periodic Table
The periodic table of elements. (Unit: 1)
When light shines on a metal, electrons pop out.
Photoelectric Effect
When light shines on a metal, electrons pop out. (Unit: 2)
An illustration of two possible regimes of pinning for superfluid vortices in the crust of a neutron star.
Pinning
An illustration of two possible regimes of pinning for superfluid vortices in the crust of a neutron star. (Unit: 8)
Illustration showing pion decay
Pion Decay
Pions play an important role in explaining why atomic nuclei do not split apart. (Unit: 1)
planck satellite
Planck Satellite
The Planck satellite will make precise measurements of fluctuations in the CMB. (Unit: 4)
Two possible conformations of a prion protein: on the left as a beta sheet; on the right as an alpha helix.
Prion Structures
Two possible conformations of a prion protein: on the left as a beta sheet; on the right as an alpha helix. (Unit: 9)
A schematic of how minimizing the free energy of a molecule could lead to protein folding.
Protein Folding Funnel
A schematic of how minimizing the free energy of a molecule could lead to protein folding. (Unit: 9)
Proton Decay
Proton Decay
The X boson mediates the decay of the proton. (Unit: 2)
Illustration of the temperature evolution of the Fermi surface in underdoped cuprates.
Pseudogaps
Illustration of the temperature evolution of the Fermi surface in underdoped cuprates. (Unit: 8)
A plot of QCD at Different Energies
QCD at Different Energies
The QCD coupling depends on energy. (Unit: 2)
QED at high energies and short distances.
QED Coupling
QED at high energies and short distances. (Unit: 2)
Quantum vortices in a BEC (top) and the corresponding phase of the quantum wavefunction (bottom)
Quantum Vortices
Quantum vortices in a BEC (top) and the corresponding phase of the quantum wavefunction (bottom). (Unit: 6)
Quark Flux Tubes
Quark Flux Tubes
As quarks are pulled apart, eventually new quarks appear. (Unit: 4)
Star image
Quark-Gluon Plasma
The aftermath of a heavy ion collision at RHIC, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. (Unit: 4)
Quasars and gravitational lenses
Quasars and Gravitational Lenses
Gravitational lensing produces more than one image of distant quasars, as seen in this shot from the Hubble Space Telescope. (Unit: 10)
Quasiparticles
Quasiparticles
As shown in the figure, dimensionality can influence dramatically the behavior of quasiparticles in metals. (Unit: 8)
Qubits and Superposition
Qubits and Superposition
Quantum computers use qubits. (Unit: 7)
Illustration of a biker winning a race against a light pulse.
Race Between a Biker and a Light Pulse.
The biker wins the race against the light pulse! (Unit: 7)
graphical image of scientist doing experiment at rest or on top of rocket at high speed
Reference Frames
Experimental results remain the same whether they are performed at rest or at a constant velocity. (Unit: 2)
The refractive index and transmission are shown as functions of the frequency of the probe laser.
Refractive Index and Transmission
Refractive index variation with the frequency of a probe laser pulse. (Unit: 7)
The circuit diagram (top), bacterial population (center), and plot of the dynamics (bottom) of the repressilator, an example of
Repressilator
The circuit diagram (top), bacterial population (center), and plot of the dynamics (bottom) of the repressilator, an example of a simple synthetic biological network. (Unit: 9)
These objects are Riemann surfaces with genus 0, 1, and 2.
Riemann Surfaces
These objects are Riemann surfaces with genus 0, 1, and 2. (Unit: 4)
The chemical structure of RNA (left), and the form the folded molecule takes (right).
RNA
The chemical structure of RNA (left), and the form the folded molecule takes (right). (Unit: 9)
RNA and DNA
RNA and DNA
Molecules of life: RNA (left) and DNA (right). (Unit: 9)
Rotations in physical space and "particle space."
Rotation
Rotations in physical space and "particle space." (Unit: 2)
Rutherford's model of a hydrogen atom.
Rutherford's Hydrogen Atom
Rutherford's model of a hydrogen atom. (Unit: 6)
Two examples of a scattering cross section
Scattering Cross Sections
Two examples of a scattering cross section. (Unit: 2)
Molecules in the Lewis shell picture: the pair bond for H<sub>2</sub> and Li<sub>2</sub>.
Shell Model for Molecules
Molecules in the Lewis shell picture: the pair bond for H2 and Li2. (Unit: 6)
Short distance gravity test
Short-Distance Gravity Test
Torsion pendulum to test the inverse square law of gravity at sub-millimeter distances. (Unit: 3)
Simulation of a Higgs event at the LHC.
Simulated Higgs Event
Simulation of a Higgs event at the LHC. (Unit: 2)
simulated LHC collision
Simulated LHC Collision
The rules of quantum gravity must predict the probability of different collision fragments forming at the LHC, such as the miniature black hole simulated here. (Unit: 4)
plane waves
Single-Slit Interference
Ripple tank picture of plane waves incident on a slit that is about two wavelengths wide. (Unit: 5)
SLAC's evidence for the J/Psi
SLAC's Evidence for the J/Psi
Computer reconstruction of a psi-prime decay in the SLAC Mark I detector. (Unit: 1)
Density notch soliton
Soliton
Density notch soliton. (Unit: 6)
In Einstein's theory of gravity, space is warped but featureless.
Spacetime in General Relativity
In Einstein's theory of gravity, space is warped but featureless. (Unit: 11)
Spin pairing in the molecules H<sub>2</sub> and Li<sub>2</sub>.
Spin Pairing in Molecules
Spin pairing in the molecules H2 and Li2. (Unit: 6)
SQUID Amplifiers in the ADMX Detector
SQUID Amplifiers in the ADMX Detector
SQUID technology boosts the ability of the Axion Dark Matter experiment to detect the faint signals that would indicate the presence of axions. (Unit: 10)
A chart of the Standard Model of Elementary Particles
Standard Model
Fundamental particles of the Standard Model. (Unit: 1)
The Standard Model of particle physics.
Standard Model
The Standard Model of particle physics. (Unit: 4)
standing wave graphic of three excited states
Standing Waves
Standing waves on a string between two fixed endpoints. (Unit: 5)
String collisions are softer than particle collisions.
String Collision
String collisions are softer than particle collisions. (Unit: 4)
Typical string theories or supersymmetric field theories have many candidate scalar field inflatons.
String Landscape
Typical string theories or supersymmetric field theories have many candidate scalar field inflatons. (Unit: 4)
Strings can wind around a double torus in many distinct ways.
String on a Double Torus
Strings can wind around a double torus in many distinct ways. (Unit: 4)
Small fluctuations in density in the leftmost box collapse into large structures on the right in this computer simulation of the
Structure Formation
Small fluctuations in density in the leftmost box collapse into large structures on the right in this computer simulation of the universe. (Unit: 4)
Simulations of structure formation in the universe show the influence of gravity and dark energy
Structure in the Universe
Simulations of structure formation in the universe show the influence of gravity and dark energy. (Unit: 3)
The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect allows astronomers to find the signature of galaxy clusters in the CMB.
Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect
The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect allows astronomers to find the signature of galaxy clusters in the CMB. (Unit: 11)
Schematic of a SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device).
Superconducting SQUID
A Superconducting Qantum Interference Device (SQUID) is the most sensitive type of detector of magnetic fields known to science. (Unit: 8)
Illustration showing the geometry of a straight vortex line in a superfluid.
Superfluid Vortex
Geometry of a straight vortex line in a superfluid. (Unit: 8)
String theory
Superstring
The fundamental units of matter may be minuscule bits of string. (Unit: 4)
Five Feynman diagrams: top 3 represent part of calculation of quantum effects on the Higgs mass, other 2 include superpartners o
Supersymmetry
Canceling loops in supersymmetry. (Unit: 2)
temperature and the de Broglie wavelength
Temperature and the de Broglie Wavelength
Atomic de Broglie waves overlap as temperatures are lowered. (Unit: 6)
temperature scales in physics
Temperature Scale
Temperature scale in physics. (Unit: 5)
Planck scale
Temperatures, Energies, and Lengths
Changes in short-distance physics—at the Planck scale—can produce profound changes in cosmology, at the largest imaginable distances. (Unit: 4)
Energies, sizes, and temperatures in physics, and in nature.
Temperatures, Energies, and Lengths
Energies, sizes, and temperatures in physics, and in nature. (Unit: 2)
Thomson's three experiments with the cathode ray tube.
Thomson's Experiments
Thomson used the cathode ray tube in three different experiments. (Unit: 1)
Tidal Water Level Plot.
Tidal Water Level
Plot of the tidal Water Level (WL) at Port Townsend, Washington. (Unit: 3)
Timeline of the universe
Timeline of the Universe
The history of the universe according to our standard model of cosmology. (Unit: 10)
Cosmic microwave background graphic
Timeline of the Universe
Dark energy is now the dominant factor pushing the universe to expand. (Unit: 11)
Schematic of a torsion balance to measure the gravitational constant, G
Torsion Balance to Measure G
Schematic of a torsion balance to measure the gravitational constant, G. (Unit: 3)
A left-handed electron is seen from a stopped train (left). If the train starts moving faster than the electron, it will appear
Train
Spin flipping on the train. (Unit: 2)
Map of Germany with a line showing the optimal path for a traveling salesman
Traveling Salesman Problem
An optimal travelling salesman problem (TSP) tour through Germany's 15 largest cities. It is the shortest among 43,589,145,600 possible tours visiting each city exactly once. (Unit: 9)
Turing test: To address the question of whether machines can show the kind of intelligence that humans possess.
Turing Test
Player C is trying to determine which player—A or B—is a computer and which is a human. (Unit: 9)
twin paradox graph
Twin Paradox
Time dilation/twin "paradox." (Unit: 3)
Schematic diagram of two types of superconductors.
Two Types of Superconductors
Left: conventional superconductors, and right: heavy-electron superconductors. (Unit: 8)
two circular waves crossing paths.
Two-Wave Interference
Two waves interfere as they cross paths. (Unit: 5)
supernovae Ia spectrum
Type Ia Supernova Spectrum
The spectrum of a Type Ia supernova, shown here, distinguishes it from other supernova types. (Unit: 11)
Drawing of the underground Brookhaven Solar Neutrino Observatory.
Underground Neutrino Experiment
Drawing of the underground Brookhaven Solar Neutrino Observatory. (Unit: 1)
Unification of Quarks and Leptons
Unification of Quarks and Leptons
Quarks and leptons, unified. (Unit: 2)
uniform gravitational field
Uniform Gravitational Field
Equality of gravitational and inertial mass. (Unit: 3)
In the Standard Model (left), the couplings for the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces never meet, while in supersymmetry (
Unifying the Forces
In the Standard Model (left), the couplings for the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces never meet, while in supersymmetry (right), these forces unify near 1015 GeV. (Unit: 2)
Waves emerging from slits
Various Interference Effects
The two-slit interference pattern depends on the distance between the slits. (Unit: 5)
Plot of the radiotelescope observations of glitches and postglitch behavior in the Vela pulsar.
Vela Pulsar
Radiotelescope observations of glitches and postglitch behavior in the Vela pulsar. (Unit: 8)
The three Feynman diagrams above represent parts of the calculation of the probability of two W particles scattering.
W Boson Scattering
Scattering of W particles in Feynman diagrams. (Unit: 2)
Image of water at macroscopic, molecular, atomic levels
Water
The electromagnetic force and the constituents of matter. (Unit: 2)
ground state harmonic oscillator
Wavefunction and Probability Distribution
The ground state wavefunction of a harmonic oscillator (left) and the corresponding probability distribution (right). (Unit: 5)
wavefunctions for a particle in a box
Wavefunctions
(a)-(d) Some wavefunctions for a particle in a box. Curve (e) is the sum of curves (a-d). (Unit: 5)
If a particle is constrained to move on a circle, its wave must resemble the left drawing rather than the right.
Waves on a Circle
If a particle is constrained to move on a circle, its wave must resemble the left drawing rather than the right. (Unit: 4)
Wine Bottle Potential
Wine Bottle Potential
The wine-bottle potential that is characteristic of spontaneous symmetry breaking. (Unit: 2)
In the picture, there is a three-dimensional space where the gravitational force lives (along with gravitons) and a two-dimensio
World as a Membrane
The Standard Model particles could be confined to the surface of a membrane, while gravity is free to leak into other dimensions. (Unit: 2)
a display of tracks of particles emanating from a Z particle produced at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLAC).
Z Boson
The Z particle at SLAC. (Unit: 2)