7 / Domestic Life
|Artist / Origin||
Unknown artist, Pompeii, Italy
ca. 1st century
Period: 1 CE - 500 CE
|Location||Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples, Italy|
|Credit||Courtesy of Art Resource, NY/Photo by Erich Lessing|
|Bettina BergmannProfessor of Art, Mount Holyoke College|
Clarke, John R. The Houses of Roman Italy, 100 B.C.–A.D. 250: Ritual, Space, and Decoration. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1991.
Clarke, John R. Art in the Lives of Ordinary Romans: Visual Representation and Non-Elite Viewers in Italy, 100 B.C.–A.D. 315. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2006.
Kondoleon, Christine. “Timing Spectacles: Roman Domestic Art and Performance.” In The Art of Ancient Spectacle, edited by Bettina Bergmann and Christine Kondoleon, 321–342. New Haven: The National Gallery of Art in association with Yale University Press, 2000.
Mattusch, Carol C., ed. Pompeii and the Roman Villa: Art and Culture Around the Bay of Naples. London: Thames & Hudson, 2008.
Mazzoleni, Donatella, Umberto Pappalardo, and Luciano Romano. Domus: Wall Painting in the Roman House. Los Angeles: Getty Trust Publications, 2005.
Pappalardo, Umberto. The Splendor of Roman Wall Painting. Los Angeles: Getty Trust Publications, 2009.
Sellers, Vanessa Bezemer, and Geoffrey Taylor. “The Idea and Invention of the Villa.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Web site. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/villa/hd_villa.htm (October 2004).
Theatrical decoration with figures
In the year 79, the eruption of Mount Vesuvius buried the Roman towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum under layers of ash and lava.
Centuries later, archaeologists discovered that this volcanic debris had actually preserved much of the material culture at these sites. Our knowledge of Roman painting is largely based on the frescoes discovered in the domestic spaces of area residents. This particular example comes from a house in Pompeii and likely dates to the first century.
Wall paintings uncovered in Pompeii’s residential structures vary widely and cover a diverse array of subject matter from landscapes to still life to mythology. This fresco contains several of these themes, each contained in its own discrete space marked off by illusionistic architecture. Trompe l’oeil, painting intended to deceive the eye, was a popular feature of Roman wall painting from as early as the first century. In addition to providing entertainment and visual stimulation, seemingly realistic objects or architectural elements could create a sense of expanded space. Although this scene does not present an entirely convincing perspective, an open door and recesses framed by columns defy the solidity of the wall beneath. Scholars have divided Roman painting into four distinct styles each with characteristic traits. This fresco appears to belong to the fourth style, which prevailed at the time of the Vesuvius eruption and tended toward more fantastic scenes that have been likened to Roman theater backdrops.
Wall paintings like this decorated the homes of the elite as well as more modest houses. While many wealthy and aristocratic Romans had country villas in Boscoreale, an area north of Pompeii, Pompeii itself was inhabited largely by freedmen and the nouveaux riches who had their permanent residences there. Given the accelerated social mobility of the period, frescoes might be understood not just as a form of interior decoration, but also a proclamation of real or desired social status.