Unit 11: Atmospheric Pollution // Section 6: Smog
Smog is often used as a generic term for any kind of air pollution that reduces visibility, especially in urban areas. However, it is useful to distinguish two broad types: industrial smog and photochemical smog.
Events like the London smog of 1952 are often referred to as industrial smog because SO2 emissions from burning coal play a key role. Typically, industrial smog—also called gray or black smog—develops under cold and humid conditions. Cold temperatures are often associated with inversions that trap the pollution near the surface (see Section 2, "Chemicals in Motion," above). High humidity allows for rapid oxidation of SO2 to form sulfuric acid and sulfate particles. Events similar to the 1952 London smog occurred in the industrial towns of Liege, Belgium, in 1930, killing more than 60 people, and Donora, Pennsylvania, in 1948, killing 20. Today coal combustion is a major contributor to urban air pollution in China, especially from emissions of SO2 and aerosols (footnote 2).
Air pollution regulations in developed countries have reduced industrial smog events, but photochemical smog remains a persistent problem, largely driven by vehicle emissions. Photochemical smog forms when NOx and VOCs react in the presence of solar radiation to form ozone. The solar radiation also promotes formation of secondary aerosol particles from oxidation of NOx, VOCs, and SO2. Photochemical smog typically develops in summer (when solar radiation is strongest) in stagnant conditions promoted by temperature inversions and weak winds. Photochemical smog is a ubiquitous urban problem in the developed world and often blankets large populated regions such as the eastern United States and western Europe for extended periods in summer.
Ozone and aerosols are the two main health hazards of photochemical smog. Ozone is invisible, but aerosol particles scatter sunlight as discussed above in Section 5, and are responsible for the whitish haze associated with smog. Because ozone is created in the atmosphere, concentrations are often higher downwind of urban areas than in the urban areas themselves. Figure 9 shows counties in the United States that currently fail to comply with the national standard for ozone levels over an 8-hour period (nonattainment areas). These cover much of California and the eastern United States on a regional scale.
Figure 9. Nonattainment and maintenance areas in the U.S. 8-hour ozone standard
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Source: Courtesy United States Environmental Protection Agency.