When a spontaneous reaction drives a nonspontaneous reaction.
The amount of disorder in a system. Statistically, the more microstates that make up a macrostate, the more entropy that macrostate has.
The state of maximum thermodynamic stability of a chemical reaction. While the reaction is still occurring in the forward and the reverse directions, there is no macroscopic evidence of changing amounts of products or reactants.
A mathematical expression of the relative amounts of products and reactants when a reaction is at equilibrium.
Gibbs free energy
The value that indicates the thermodynamic stability of a system. All systems spontaneously move toward a minimum in Gibbs free energy.
In statistical mechanics, the overall distribution and thermodynamic properties of particles within a given system.
In statistical mechanics, the specific distribution and thermodynamic properties of particles within a given system.
Referring to the direction of a process that proceeds toward thermodynamic instability.
The energy associated with a spinning object.
A process that proceeds toward thermodynamic stability.
Equations describing how particles distribute themselves in predictable ways, despite each particle moving around randomly.
The kinetic energy of a particle moving in a straight line.
The energy possessed by a substance due to the vibration of chemical bonds.