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Unit 9: Human Evolution
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Animations

Hominoid Family TreeHominoid Family Tree
Family tree of hominoids, including the apes and man.
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Human Fossil BushHuman Fossil Bush
The èHominid Family Bushî made up of modern humans, their ancestors, and their now-extinct relatives.
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Human Migration HypothesesHuman Migration Hypotheses
Most scientists agree that an early hominid species evolved in Africa and spread across the Old World. After that, there is still some debate between the èMultiregionalî hypothesis and the èOut of Africa,î or èReplacementî hypothesis as to how modern humans came to evolve and populate the globe.
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Mitochondrial DNAMitochondrial DNA
A 3-D animation of the way that a zygote receives nuclear, or genomic, DNA from both parents (sperm and egg cells) but inherits mitochondrial DNA only from the mother.
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Mitochondrial EveMitochondrial Eve
This shows how one female ancestor passed on her mitochondrial DNA to everyone living today. This woman, called "Mitochondrial Eve," probably lived only 200,000Œ300,000 years ago.
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Regulatory HypothesisRegulatory Hypothesis
This animation illustrates the experiments that Ajit Varki, Wolf Enard, and Svente Paabo carried out to compare the gene expression between chimpanzees, humans, and an outgroup, the Rhesus monkey. While gene expression was similar between humans and chimps in the liver and blood, they showed very different patterns of gene expression in the brain.
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Images

Apemen Apemen
An early sketch of the evolution of man from the zoological point of view
Ascent of man Ascent of man
An early view of the evolution of man from its ancestors
Chimpanzee Chimpanzee
The chimpanzee, humansç closest living relative
DeCode asthma pedigree figure DeCode asthma pedigree figure
Pedigree of one family and its history of asthma through the generations
Diagram of human and chimp chromosome Diagram of human and chimp chromosome
A diagram of human and chimp chromosome similarity
Genealogical tree of Icelandic family Genealogical tree of Icelandic family
A genealogical tree of an Icelandic family
Gorilla Gorilla
The gorilla, another living relative to humans
Hominid skull Hominid skull
Hominoid tree Hominoid tree
A tree showing the evolution of the hominoids, including the great apes and humans.
Homo habilis skull specimen Homo habilis skull specimen
Human and chimp allele clustering Human and chimp allele clustering
For nearly all genes, human alleles cluster together and chimp alleles cluster together (left). In the case of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), human alleles are often more closely related to chimp alleles and vice-versa. This occurs due to balancing selection maintaining variation at the MHC (right).
Human and Neanderthal skeletons Human and Neanderthal skeletons
An adult human and Neanderthal skeleton side by side
Human fossil èbushî Human fossil "bush"
The human "bush," as postulated from fossil finds of hominid species.
Human skull specimen Human skull specimen
Hypotheses of human migration Hypotheses of human migration
Left: The "Out of Africa", or "Replacement," hypothesis suggests all living humans evolved from a group that originated in Africa. Right: The èMultiregionalî hypothesis suggests several groups evolved in parallel to form todayçs population of humans.
Iceland family genealogy text Iceland family genealogy text
Icelandic people have kept careful records of their family histories for hundreds of years, aiding efforts to track disease patterns in their genes.
Icelandic family photo Icelandic family photo
Icelandic family photograph
Krings figure Krings figure
Figure from Cell paper on the study of Neanderthal DNA
Mitochondria Mitochondria
Photomicrograph of mitochondria inside a cell
Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny
A phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA sequences from modern humans around the globe
Mitochondrial Eve "Mitochondrial Eve"
The diagram illustrates how one line of mitochondrial DNA came to be carried by all living humans, passed down to us through the èMitochondrial Eve.î
Neanderthal group Neanderthal group
Neanderthal painting Neanderthal painting
An artist's rendering of a Neanderthal community
Neanderthal painting Neanderthal painting
An artist's rendering of a Neanderthal man
Neanderthal skeleton upright Neanderthal skeleton upright
Neanderthal skull Neanderthal skull
Skull of a Neanderthal whose DNA was used to determine that Neanderthals were not our ancestors.
Old Icelandic family photo Old Icelandic family photo
Photo of an Icelandic family
Pithecanthropus painting Pithecanthropus painting
An artist's rendering of Pithecanthropus man
Pithecanthropus painting Pithecanthropus painting
Hominid scene with tiger
Skull Homo erectus Skull Homo erectus
Vikings arrive in Iceland Vikings arrive in Iceland
A painting depicting the arrival of the Vikings to Iceland
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