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Unit 1 Genomics
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Animations

BLAST Search BLAST Search
A depiction of what happens in a BLAST search in the GenBank database.
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HaplotypesHaplotypes
A brief description of the concept of a haplotype.
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Microarray ExperimentMicroarray Experiment
A depiction of a typical microarray experiment to discover which genes are expressed in a given sample.
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Open Reading FrameOpen Reading Frame
A brief description of the concept of an open reading frame (ORF).
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Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)
An explanation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
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Theory of DNA Repair in DeinococcusTheory of DNA Repair in Deinococcus
A depiction of the DNA repair process that Jonathon Eisen postulates might be happening in Deinococcus radiodurans after it is exposed to radiation.
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Images

CLUSTAL data CLUSTAL data
A CLUSTAL alignment of a segment of a gene from four species. The red letters show the amino acid sequence (R=arginine, P=proline, G=glycine, etc.). The nucleotides that are conserved in all four species are shown in the columns with an asterisk at the bottom.
Deinococcus radioduransDeinococcus radiodurans
Deinococcus radiodurans is a bacterium that scientists claim is the most radiation-resistant organism on earth.
Deinococcus radioduransDeinococcus radiodurans
Deinococcus radiodurans is a bacterium that scientists claim is the most radiation-resistant organism on earth.
Genome of Deinococcus radioduransGenome of Deinococcus radiodurans
The genetic sequence of Deinococcus radiodurans
Head of Drosophila melanogasterHead of Drosophila melanogaster
Drosophila, the fruit fly, is a common model organism used in genetic research. It was one of the organisms sequenced in the Human Genome Project.
Map of chromosome 3 showing location of PPARG geneMap of chromosome 3 showing location of PPARG gene
All of the genes that have been identified on chromosome 3. A single nucleotide polymorphism mutation in the PPARG gene has been implicated in Type 2 diabetes.
Microarray experimentMicroarray experiment
A. RNA is isolated from cells from two samples (in this illustration, infected and uninfected plant cells). B. The mRNA from both samples is copied to a more stable form, called cDNA, using reverse transcriptase. C. At the same time, the cDNA is labeled with fluorescent tags (a different color tag for each sample). D. The tagged cDNA is placed on the microarray chip, where it binds to the corresponding DNA that makes up the genes that have been previously spotted on the chip. E. The chip is placed in a laser scanner, which identifies the genes that hybridize to each sample (uninfected=green; infected=red; and both samples=yellow). F. The data are displayed on a computer screen where expression of the individual genes can be identified.
RNA processingRNA processing
A gene consists of coding regions, called exons, that are interrupted with intervening noncoding regions, called introns. During transcription, the whole segment of DNA that corresponds to a gene is copied to make RNA. During RNA processing, the introns are removed and the exons are joined. A poly(A) tail is added to the mRNA.
SequencingSequencing
Strategies for cloning whole genomes
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