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Unit Chapters
Genomics
Proteins & Proteomics
What is Proteomics?
Introduction to Protein Structure
Determining Protein Structure
Structure and Function Relationships of Proteins
Protein Modification
Genomics-Based Predictions of Cellular Proteins
2D Gel Electrophoresis to Identify Cellular Proteins
Mass Spectrometry to Identify Cellular Proteins
Identifying Protein Interactions
The Yeast Two-Hybrid System
Protein Microarrays
Protein Networks
Proteomes in Different Organisms
Proteomics and Drug Discovery
Ethics and the Economics of Drug Discovery
Evolution & Phylogenetics
Microbial Diversity
Emerging Infectious Diseases
HIV & AIDS
Genetics of Development
Cell Biology & Cancer
Human Evolution
Neurobiology
Biology of Sex & Gender
Biodiversity
Genetically Modified Organisms
The Yeast Two-Hybrid System

The yeast two-hybrid system is a powerful technique for identifying multiprotein complexes. Using genetically engineered yeast, scientists can identify complexes when specific pairs of interacting proteins activate expression of a reporter gene. One often-used reporter gene is the lacZ gene. When two proteins interact in the yeast cell they activate expression of this gene, allowing yeast cells to metabolize an indicator that turns these cells a different color. The interacting proteins are then identified from the colonies formed by these colored cells. The two-hybrid system has been expanded to use microarrays of cloned yeast genes (see below). These large-scale yeast two-hybrid assays can provide information on thousands of protein-protein interactions. Using this technology, researchers are identifying all the proteins in yeast that interact, and they will then map the complex network of cellular functions to these interacting proteins.

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